For the past 45 years Germany has had two health care systems: one in the former Federal Republic of Germany and one in the former German Democratic Republic. The system in the Federal Republic was undergoing some important reforms when German reunification took place in October Now the system in eastern Germany is undergoing a major transformation to bring it more into line with that in western Germany. In the case of western Germany, there were no profound structural changes to its health care system since the foundations of the system were laid by Bismarck in However, there was much growth in, and adaptation to, the system during its long history, including some significant reforms in the late s and in the s. In contrast, after World War II eastern Germany was given publicly financed and provided services quite unlike those in western Germany Light, Following the reunification of Germany in October , health service financing and delivery arrangements in eastern Germany are once more being radically reformed to bring them back toward the arrangements that have prevailed throughout in western Germany. A description of the health care system in western Germany together with some brief references to that in the former GDR.
History – Modern History primary sources
Foreign companies not experienced in German labor and employment need to be aware of all legal requirements for staff employed in Germany. It must be assured for the staff that their employment terms comply with all legal requirements and that these terms serve the objectives of the new company. Thus, it is important to know the applicable labor and employment statutes. The following articles summarize the principles of German labor and employment law and the essential content of the statutes, which are of major interest for a new company.
Under European law the parties to the employment contract are allowed to stipulate the applicable national law.
Rather then merely amending out-of-date provisions of the old Act (dating from ), the German legislature decided to pass a completely.
In addition, many German couples wish to get married when on holiday, which often means abroad. Yet whilst the lights of Las Vegas, the romance of Venice or the tropical palms of a South Sea island beach do provide an unforgettable setting, it must be remembered that marriage is, first and foremost, a legally binding contract which has many consequences and that additional requirements may have to be met if the ceremony is performed abroad.
Consular officials at German missions Embassies and Consulates-General no longer solemnize marriages. Nowadays it is possible in most countries to be married by the local authorities or persons authorized to solemnize marriages. Binding information on the precise formalities can only be obtained from the local authorities or persons concerned. If, exceptionally, it is not possible to get married in any particular country, you can of course get married in Germany in any registry office, provided at least one of you has German nationality.
The application to get married must initially be filed with the registry office in the district in Germany where one of the couple resides. If neither of the couple is resident in Germany, the application must be filed with the registry office were the marriage should take place. The German missions abroad regularly report on the law relating to marriage in their host countries.
The place where you marry does not automatically determine which country’s laws are applicable to the various other legal issues connected with marriage e. A separate check should be run to establish which legal system will apply, especially if the bride and groom have different nationalities.
This resource is periodically updated for necessary changes due to legal, market, or practice developments. Significant developments affecting this resource will be described below. What’s on Practical Law? Show less Show more. Ask a question.
Publication Number, Publication Title, Publication Date and Vehicle Requirements and the Installation Traffic Code for the U.S. Forces in Germany, 6/18/
The age at which a person is deemed legally competent to consent to sexual activity varies widely around the world – and even within Europe. Most countries prohibit sex with unders or unders, but in some places the age of consent is as low as 11, or as high as However, even within counties this can vary widely between males and females and in cases of heterosexual and homosexual sex. In the UK, the age of consent stands at 16, regardless of gender or sexual orientation.
So how does this compare with the rest of the world? Children as young as 14 are considered able to consent to sex in Germany, Austria, Hungary, Italy and Portugal. By contrast, the age of consent is much higher in Turkey, at The Vatican is the only jurisdiction in Europe not to have equal and gender-neutral age limits.
Infos about Divorce in Germany
Cultural influences, attitudes, and behavior vary within and across nations and within and across ethnicities. They are strongly embedded within communities and influence the business etiquette in Germany. In many respects, Germans are the masters of planning. This is a culture that likes forward-thinking and knowing what they are doing at a specific time on a specific day.
The German thought process is extremely detailed, with each aspect of a project being examined in great detail.
In order to protect children and young people, there are particular laws governing the age at which young people can legally have sex. There are 4 different levels to the age of consent :. In Germany, it is forbidden for adults or young people to have sex with children younger than If adults and young people do this anyway, they become liable to prosecution.
If two children engage in sexual acts with each other, they will not be punished. This is because under German law , children younger than 14 have not yet reached the age of criminal responsibility. Young people aged 14 and over are granted a certain amount of sexual maturity and personal responsibility. Therefore, young people aged 14 and 15 are allowed to have sex with each other.
Of course, this only applies if both people voluntarily consent. However, it is forbidden for adults or young people aged 16 and over to have sex with young people under the age of 16 if the older person is entrusted with the education, training or care of the young person under the age of This means, for example, that teachers, trainers, youth care workers and foster parents are never allowed to have sex with young people under the age of Adults aged 21 and over are not allowed to exploit young people under the age of 16 if they cannot properly decide for themselves whether or not they really want to carry out sexual acts with the adult , and adults are not allowed to coax young people into doing so.
Learn how to navigate the world of dating in Germany as an expat with our helpful guide to the local dating culture, etiquette, faux pas, and more. Dating someone from a foreign country can be an exciting experience. Different cultures around the world have a different appreciation of the qualities that make someone a desirable mate.
What one culture considers romantic, attractive, or polite, another might not.
Information on the ages used historically in western age of consent laws is not readily available. This table has been compiled from a combination of historical and contemporary sources. By , the first date chosen, many western nations had established an age of consent for the first time, typically of 12 or 13 years.
By , when the influence of reform campaigns that established a new link between the age of consent and prostitution had run its course, most had revised their age upward, to 14 or 15 in European nations, and 16 in the Anglo-American world. In the last decades of the 20th century, states and nations with ages below those averages amended their laws to move closer to them.
In Europe that growing conformity owed much to moves toward greater European integration. Given that the rationale for the age of consent has remained essentially unchanged in its emphasis on the need to protect ‘immature’ children, the table highlights the shifting and various definitions of childhood employed across time and cultures.
Date compiled from the following sources: Hirschfeld, Magnus.
Guide to dating in Germany
Germany has a long tradition of rigorously and effectively enforcing the prohibition of cartels. In , the German Federal Cartel Office FCO uncovered and investigated a large number of different competition law infringements in many different industries. The total fines imposed in have been relatively low compared to previous years.
The legal provisions for value dating and availability of funds have led to a further tightening of the regulations for the processing of transactions. Accordingly.
The Act against Unfair Competition has been thoroughly revised with the aim of modernising German law against unfair competition and bringing it into line with developments in EC law. The new Act does not contain any transitional provisions. It has entered into force the day after its publication in the Official Journal Bundesgesetzblatt on July 8, Rather then merely amending out-of-date provisions of the old Act dating from , the German legislature decided to pass a completely new statute.
The stated aims of the revision are to increase consumer protection, to provide greater transparency of the rules relating to unfair competition, particularly for non-lawyers, and to provide more freedom to businesses. The new Act to a large extent codifies and clarifies the more recent case law of the German courts, utilising the categorisation of unfair trade practices into various groups of cases by legal writers. It is therefore submitted that most of the case law concerning the old Act is still good law.
Although thus to a large extent building on court decisions on the old Act, in some parts the new Act departs from the previous case law and sets new standards.